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What is Profit Margin and how is it calculated?

Profit Margin is one of the profitability ratios that is usually used to measure the profitability of a company or business. This measure shows what percentage of sales has been converted into profit. Simply put, the number next to this percentage indicates how much profit is made for each dollar (euro or any other currency) in the sale of a business. For example, if a business reports that it has achieved a 35% profit margin in the last quarter, it means that for every dollar of sales generated, it has a net income of $ 0.35.

There are several types of profit margins. However, in everyday use, we usually refer to the net profit margin. This is determined by the final result that the company deducts after deducting all expenses, including taxes and surcharges. In the following text, we have reviewed the formulas and types of this type of profitability to make it easier for you to better understand this issue.

Profit Margin Basics

Businesses and individuals around the world engage in for-profit economic activities. However, absolute numbers – such as gross sales of $ X million, business expenses of $ 1,000, or revenue of $ Z – do not provide a clear and realistic picture of a business’s profitability and performance. Several slightly different metrics are used to calculate a business ‘profit (or loss) that make it easier to evaluate a business’ performance over different time periods or compare it to competitors. These measures are called profit margins.

What is Profit Margin and how is it calculated
What is Profit Margin and how is it calculated –

While private businesses, such as local stores, may calculate profit margins as often as they wish (such as once a week or twice a week), large businesses, including corporations, are required to report it according to standard reporting intervals (such as quarters). Or annually) report. Businesses that work with borrowed money may be required to calculate and report it to the lender (such as a bank) on a monthly basis as part of standard procedures.

Profit or profit margin has four levels:

  • Gross profit
  • Operating Profit
  • Profit before tax
  • Net profit

These are reflected in the company’s income statement in the following order: The company receives sales revenue, then pays the direct costs of the service product. What is left is the gross margin. It then pays for indirect costs such as company headquarters, advertising, research, and development. What is left is the performance margin. It then pays interest on the debt and adds or subtracts any unusual expenses or entries unrelated to the core business with the remaining pre-tax margin. It then pays taxes and leaves a net margin, also known as net income.

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Types of profit margins

Let’s take a closer look at the different types of profit margins.

1- Gross profit margin

Start with sales and cover costs that are directly related to the creation or delivery of the product or service, such as raw materials, labor, and so on. These costs are commonly known as “cost of goods sold” or “cost of goods sold” or “cost of sales”. If you have a good income, you will receive a gross margin. It is calculated based on the sales of each product. Gross margin is useful for a company that analyzes its product portfolio (although this data is not shared with the public), but in general, a gross margin represents the gross picture of a company’s profitability.

2- Operating profit margin

Subtracting sales, general, administrative, or operating expenses from a company’s gross profit, we receive an operating profit margin known as pre-tax profit or EBIT. As a result, the amount of income available to pay off the debts and assets of business owners, as well as the tax sector, is the profit from the main and continuous operations of a company. This profit is often used by bankers and analysts to value an entire company for potential acquisitions.

3- Profit margin before tax

Subtract operating income and calculate the cost of profit by adding any income from profit. Adjust for non-recurring items such as profit or loss on discontinued operations and earn pre-tax profit or pre-tax income (EBT). Then divide by the income to get the pre-tax profit margin.

The pre-tax profit margin compares all levels of remaining profit with sales. For example, 42% of gross margin means that for every $ 100 of revenue, a company pays $ 58 in costs directly related to the production of a product or service, and $ 42 remains in gross profit.

4- Net profit margin

Net profit margin is calculated by dividing net profit by net sales or by dividing net income by revenue over a period of time. In the calculation of profit margins, net profit and net income are used interchangeably. Similarly, sales and revenue will be used interchangeably. Net profit is determined by deducting all related expenses, including expenses related to raw materials, labor, operations, rent, interest, and taxes, from the total revenue generated. The basic formula for calculating this is as follows:

The result of speech

Profit margin measures the amount of income of a company or a business by basically dividing costs by revenue. Profit margin, expressed as a percentage, indicates how many cents of profit are generated for each dollar sold. In the following text, we tried to explain this issue clearly.

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